Pitch Canker


Disease triangleHosts are primarily in the genus Pinus, although Douglas-fir is also infected in California.  In California, where the disease has received the most attention recently, Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) is the most important host thus far.  This is particularly worrisome because Monterey pine is the most widely planted forest tree in the world and is severely impacted in its limited native range as well as in urban plantings.


Disease trianglePitch canker is caused by Fusarium circinatum. In older literature the pathogen may be called Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini or Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans. It has no known sexual stage and produces conidia on sporodochia.


Disease triangleFree moisture may be necessary for successful infection of wounds, even when vectors are involved. This could explain why the disease in California is restricted to the foggy coastal regions and is more severe closer to the coast.  Otherwise, the disease progresses faster under warmer conditions; the pathogen grows poorly below 10 C.

Disease Cycle

The fungus may be airborne, soilborne, dispersed in rain splash, or it may be vectored by flying insects.  In the southeastern U.S., and most other areas, no vector relationships have been demonstrated and the infection courts are various mechanical injuries. In California, infections are above-ground and there is evidence that insects vector the pathogen.  Insects that carry the fungus include twig beetles (Pityophthorus spp.), bark beetles (Ips spp.), and cone beetles (Conophthorus spp.).  Although some of these insects have not been known to visit healthy portions of trees, workers speculate that the insects may "taste" trees indiscriminately to determine which ones are suitable for colonization.  In this exploratory feeding, they may deposit inoculum that they picked up in their brood tree.

Epidemics in the southeastern United States appear to be related to the occurrence of infection courts following weather events that cause wounds, pruning, etc. A recovery phase is observed as the infection courts are no longer available. In California, on the other hand, the vectors are creating their own infection courts and disease progress is continuous (®).


On Monterey pine, the disease usually begins with cankers on small branches, usually near the top of the tree, that girdle and kill branch tips.  Cankers may then occur on large branches and stems, indicating an advanced stage of disease and a likelihood of continued dieback and death.  Cankers are usually resinous and, in the inner bark, are sharply delimited from healthy tissue.  Stem cankers may lead to tree death.


Pitch canker occurs in Spain, South Africa, Japan, Mexico, Haiti, and two disjunct regions of the United States (®).  The native range of the pathogen is not clear.  In the United States, the disease occurs in the Southeast and the California coast.  Because pines in other areas are susceptible in greenhouse tests, there is concern that the disease may spread to other important pine regions.


Currently, management efforts in California have focused on quarantines and public education to avoid spreading the disease.  See links below for further information.

Other Issues

Pitch canker is one of the most threatening tree diseases in the world today. Because Monterey pine ("radiata pine") is the most widely planted forest tree in the world, its native range is a valuable genetic resource. These stands are also a unique and increasingly rare example of native vegetation in the central coast of California. In addition, the disease may have a wider potential host range, and potential distribution, than it has today. If it moves into other important pine areas of the world, and finds there a suitable environment, we may be seeing only the beginning of its destructive capability.

Although the native range of this pathogen is uncertain, it seems clear that we have moved it around the world. It suddenly began causing damage in California in the 1980s. Its genetic diversity is more limited in California than in Florida (®). As such it is one of a long and tragic list of examples of the devastation that can be caused by exotic pathogens in a new environment.

About 2% of native Monterey pines appear to be resistant to the disease and an additional 7% may have moderate levels of resistance (®). There is growing evidence for some degree of systemic acquired resistance, a phenomenon in which trees become resistant to pathogens after subsequent inoculations.  Some remission of symptoms has been observed in infected trees after several years.


Last modified 18 Feb, 2013